In the past years, we have witnessed a drastic increase of technologies in urban areas as our everyday lives are becoming ‘smarter’, for instance in the fields of: health , learning [9, 15, 41], community building [1, 10] and sustainability .
A crucial step in design and decision-making processes around Smart City technologies is understanding citizens’ needs , however, the level of (active) citizen engagement in these processes differs widely. Smart City critique is often aimed at top-down, technocentric approaches  and scholars argue for a democratic, participatory approach to collaboratively explore opportunities for technologies and digitalization processes in cities. They call for a bottom-up, open, citizen-driven approach to the design and development of smart cities [8, 21].
Recently, perspectives like Human Smart Cities (HSC)  and Human-Building Interaction (HBI)  argue for the participation of citizens to create a participatory innovation ecosystem rooted in Human-Computer-Interaction (HCI) principles. While Smart City projects in the past have succeeded in involving active citizens, marginalized citizens are still usually excluded. But in order to build inclusive smart cities, active participation of all citizens is needed to take into account the interests of marginalized and vulnerable groups . During our previous workshop on Ethical Future Environments for Smart Cities , we identified vulnerable and marginalized groups in Smart Cities. We discussed opportunities for ethical and inclusive smart cities that consider the perspectives and needs of all citizens. However, to facilitate active participation of marginalized groups of citizens, researchers, designers and practitioners would need to overcome additional challenges, such as the feeling of “otherness”, power imbalances, or cultural and language barriers. For this, inclusive participatory research and design methods that align with the needs, skills and wishes of marginalized groups in Smart Cities are required.
During this workshop, we therefore aim to collaboratively explore with researchers, Smart City practitioners (such as civil servants or other employees of governmental organizations) and marginalized citizens which methods and techniques might be suited for supporting and scaffolding discussions among these groups in Smart City projects. We will use a card game based method to collaboratively discuss different topics in the context of smart cities, focusing on topics and technologies that are relevant to marginalized citizens’ lived experiences. In light of current political developments in Europe  as well as globally [17, 27, 28, 39], we focus this workshop around refugees as vulnerable and marginalized group of citizens. We argue that refugees share challenges that other groups of marginalized citizens experience, like cultural or language barriers or power imbalances.
The concept of Smart Cities is becoming increasingly relevant in the age of digitalization and urbanization processes. We adopt Fernandeze-Anez’ (2016) definition of smart cities that highlights the social and collaborative nature of smart cities: a system that enhances human and social capital wisely using and interacting with natural and economic resources via technology-based solutions and innovation to address public issues and efficiently achieve sustainable development and a high quality of life on the basis of a multi-stakeholder, municipally based partnership. In spite of acknowledging this collaborative and social nature of smart cities, Kitchin (2014b) observes that little attention is paid to the wider implications and consequences of technologically rooted developments for citizens or city administrations. Cities have difficulty in keeping innovation processes in line with the wider range of public values proposed by Jørgensen & Bozeman (2007), such as equity, protection of minorities, and (inclusive) citizen involvement. Often, one-size-fits-all narratives are used rather than focusing on a diversity of citizens, in spite of cities’ awareness of related public values.
In Smart City perspectives such as HSM and HBI, citizens play a central role in design processes. The growing discourse on HBI encapsulates the complex sociospatial roles of the built environment as a result of increased pervasive computing capabilities incorporated within public places . Architecture and physical space serve as a dynamic interface for hosting interactions between humans and computers. In keeping with these aims, HBI and HSM can provide a shared platform for collaboration between the HCI community and built environment designers to generate more inclusive future solutions and scenarios.
Participatory Design with Vulnerable Target Groups in HCI
The exclusion of vulnerable and marginalized groups in the development of technologies consolidates the status quo and furthers it, as technologies that perpetuate harm can scale to have dire consequences [20, 31, 32]. In the field of HCI, Participatory Design (PD) has therefore become an established practice in developing technologies [6, 33], considred especially relevant in the context of designing technologies for vulnerable and marginalized user groups (e.g. neurodivergent children , older adults , migrant  or racially discriminated youth ), whose experiences and thus requirements for technologies differ from those of the predominant social or cultural group. From this, PD in HCI has become a tool to include marginalized perspectives in the design of technologies, and to enact justice through design . As visions of smart cities often do not represent the reality of the diverse lives within, but only reflect the needs of a select and privileged few that have access to making decisions or participating in decision-making processes, we argue in our previous workshop statement  for the inclusion of vulnerable groups in the planning of Smart Cities as essential to breaking self-reinforcing and self-escalating cycles of harm.
During the previous workshop, participants concluded that the feeling of “otherness” is a challenge in developing inclusive Smart Cities. Looking not only towards past and present refugee crises connected to armed conflict, political persecution, and natural catastrophe, but also towards assumed future increase of climate refugees, we understand the status of being a refugee as a transitional state that any person or other life form can find itself in, becoming ‘other’ in a techno-social environment not by choice, but by necessity. Not only is the experience of seeking refuge and being other and othered shared with other vulnerable and marginalized groups, but in a changing world, including the perspective of refugees also has future relevance for refugees of other species, especially with regards to climate refugees. Access to public technologies and digital infrastructures can create or dismantle social and structural barriers in (Smart) cities. However, these infrastructures are not always suited to the needs of refugees, which are usually not included in their development, leading to digital resources – even those created explicitly for refugees – often not fulfilling their required function . Including refugees in the design processes of smart cities thus contributes to a better understanding of their needs and those of related groups, and better preparation opportunities for cities in light of the uncertainty created by climate change.
Outcomes previous workshop
The previous workshop addressed the research gap of an appropriate consideration of vulnerable target groups in the development of Smart Cities . The workshop followed a Design Fiction-oriented approach [4, 5, 12, 24, 34] with additional inclusion of the Walt Disney method  to rethink the currently predominant concept of top-down and economically oriented approaches to Smart Cities in a playful and border-crossing way, and to develop a „new, extended and sustainable model of smart cities“ . The participatory focus was on scientific experts, for whom the main results were the formation of so-called Caring Communities [18, 36] and the establishment of a certain habitus that enables the sustainable design of such a community. Flora and fauna were included as inhabitants in the Smart City, with a focus on healthy co-habitation, and Space itself was understood as another actor in a successful overall ecosystem, within which social practices must change to ensure inclusion of marginalized human and non-human actors in the long term.
Collective cohesion through the formation of community-based identification with one’s own neighborhood makes the Smart City feel local, but requiring a practiced willingness to help. A new habitus based on constructivist values, deep respective lifeworld. Some of the important questions that have emerged against this background are: How do I want to mutual respect, the recognition of equality and mutual tolerance, as well as participatory inclusion supports establishing a culture of sharing and common participation. This requires trust between various stakeholders, mutual coordination of individual interests, as well as consideration and recognition of individual knowledge as expert knowledge of the live? What is good for me? What can be addressed by me as a private citizen? What is a public task? This is the starting point for the planned second workshop.
 Konstantin Aal, George Yerousis, Kai Schubert, Dominik Hornung, Oliver Stickel, Volker Wulf, and Anne Weibert. 2014. ComeIN@Palestine: Adapting a German Computer Club Concept to a Palestinian Refugee Camp. CABS 2014 – Proceedings of the 5th ACM International Conference on Collaboration Across Boundaries 2. https://doi.org/10.1145/2631488.2631498
 Hamed S. Alavi, Elizabeth F. Churchill, Mikael Wiberg, Denis Lalanne, Peter Dalsgaard, Ava Fatah gen Schieck, and Yvonne Rogers. 2019. Introduction to Human-Building Interaction (HBI): Interfacing HCI with Architecture and Urban Design. ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact. 26, 2, Article 6 (mar 2019), 10 pages. https://doi.org/10.1145/3309714
 Liam Bannon, Jeffrey Bardzell, and Susanne Bødker. 2018. Introduction: Reimagining Participatory Design—Emerging Voices. ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact. 25, 1, Article 1 (feb 2018), 8 pages. https://doi.org/10.1145/3177794
 Mark Blythe. 2014. Research through Design Fiction: Narrative in Real and Imaginary Abstracts. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Toronto, Ontario, Canada) (CHI ’14). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 703–712. https://doi.org/10.1145/2556288.2557098
 Mark Blythe, Jamie Steane, Jenny Roe, and Caroline Oliver. 2015. Solutionism, the Game: Design Fictions for Positive Aging. In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Seoul, Republic of Korea) (CHI ’15). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 3849–3858. https://doi.org/10.1145/2702123.2702491
 Susanne Bødker and Morten Kyng. 2018. Participatory Design That Matters—Facing the Big Issues. ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact. 25, 1, Article 4 (feb 2018), 31 pages. https://doi.org/10.1145/3152421
 Kirsten E Bray, Christina Harrington, Andrea G Parker, N’Deye Diakhate, and Jennifer Roberts. 2022. Radical Futures: Supporting Community-Led Design Engagements through an Afrofuturist Speculative Design Toolkit. In CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (New Orleans, LA, USA) (CHI ’22). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, Article 452, 13 pages. https://doi.org/10.1145/3491102.3501945
 Vivien Butot, Petra Saskia Bayerl, Gabriele Jacobs, and Freek de Haan. 2020. Citizen repertoires of smart urban safety: Perspectives from Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 158 (2020), 120164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2020.120164
 Katerina Cerná, Martin Dickel, Claudia Müller, Eija Kärnä, Vera Gallistl, Franz Kolland, Verena Reuter, Gerhard Naegele, Roberta Bevilacqua, Heidi Kaspar, and Ulrich Otto. 2020. Learning for life: Designing for sustainability of tech-learning networks of older adults.
 M Dickel, D Struzek, J Jung-Heinrich, C Müller, H Kaspar, K van Holten, and K Pelzelmayer. 2019. Networks of Care in Rural Areas. Workshop: Networks of Care. In European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work: The International Venue on Practicecentred Computing. Wien.
 Tanja Ertl, Claudia Müller, Konstantin Aal, Volker Wulf, Franziska Tachtler, Laura Scheepmaker, Geraldine Fitzpatrick, Nancy Smith, and Douglas Schuler. 2021. Ethical Future Environments: Smart Thinking about Smart Cities Means Engaging with Its Most Vulnerable. In C&T ’21: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Communities & Technologies – Wicked Problems in the Age of Tech (Seattle, WA, USA) (C&T ’21). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 340–345. https://doi.org/10.1145/3461564.3468165
 Tanja Ertl, Sebastian Taugerbeck, Margarita Esau, Konstantin Aal, Peter Tolmie, and Volker Wulf. 2019. The Social Mile – How (Psychosocial) ICT Can Help to Promote Resocialization and to Overcome Prison. Proc. ACM Hum.-Comput. Interact. 3, GROUP, Article 248 (dec 2019), 31 pages. https://doi.org/10.1145/3370270
 Victoria Fernandez-Anez. 2016. Stakeholders Approach to Smart Cities: A Survey on Smart City Definitions. In Smart Cities, Enrique Alba, Francisco Chicano, and Gabriel Luque (Eds.). Springer International Publishing, Cham, 157–167.
 Design Methods Finder. 2019. Walt Disney Method. Retrieved May 20, 2022 from https://www.designmethodsfinder.com/methods/walt-disney- method
 Karen E. Fisher. 2004. Information Grounds and the Use of Need-Based Services by Immigrants in Queens, New York: A Context Based, Outcome Evaluation Approach. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 55, 8 (may 2004).
 Christopher Frauenberger, Kay Kender, Laura Scheepmaker, Katharina Werner, and Katta Spiel. 2020. Desiging Social Play Things. Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.1145/3419249.3420121
 Crisis Group. 2022. Crisis Watch: Tracking Conflict Worldwide. Retrieved May 11, 2022 from https://www.crisisgroup.org/crisiswatch
 Anita Schürch Fabian Bäumer Tanja Ertl Shkumbin Gashi Claudia Müller Timur Sereflioglu Heidi Kaspar, Katharina Pelzelmayer and Karin van Holten. 2021. Können sorgende Gemeinschaften die häusliche Langzeitversorgung verbessern? Primary and Hospital Care 21, 6 (2021), 188–190. https://doi.org/10.4414/phc- d.2021.10401
 Torben Beck Jørgensen and Barry Bozeman. 2007. Public Values: An Inventory. Administration & Society 39, 3 (2007), 354–381. 1177/0095399707300703 arXiv:https://doi.org/10.1177/0095399707300703
 Nicolas Kayser-Bril. 2019. Austria’s employment agency rolls out discriminatory algorithm, sees no problem. Retrieved May 17, 2022 from https://algorithmwatch.org/en/austrias- employment- agency- ams- rolls- out- discriminatory- algorithm/
 Rob Kitchin. 2014. Making sense of smart cities: addressing present shortcomings. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society 8, 1 (Oct. 2014), 131–136. https://doi.org/10.1093/cjres/rsu027 _eprint: https://academic.oup.com/cjres/article-pdf/8/1/131/863923/rsu027.pdf.
 Rob Kitchin. 2014. The real-time city? Big data and smart urbanism. GeoJournal 79, 1 (2014), 1–14. http://www.jstor.org/stable/24432611
 Jane Yeonjae Lee, Orlando Woods, and Lily Kong. 2020. Towards more inclusive smart cities: Reconciling the divergent re- alities of data and discourse at the margins. Geography Compass 14, 9 (2020), e12504. https://doi.org/10.1111/gec3.12504 arXiv:https://compass.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/gec3.12504
 C. Linehan, B. Kirman, S. Reeves, M.A. Blythe, J. Tanenbaum, A. Desjardins, and R.L. Wakkary. 2014. Alternate endings : using fiction to explore design futures. In 32nd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2014), April 26-May 01, 2014, Toronto, Canada. Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, United States. https://doi.org/10.1145/2559206.2560472 32nd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 2014, CHI 2014 ; Conference date: 26-04-2014 Through 01-05-2014
 Lone Malmborg, Erik Grönvall, Jörn Messeter, Thomas Raben, and Katharina Werner. 2016. Mobilizing Senior Citizens in Co-Design of Mobile Technology. Int. J. Mob. Hum. Comput. Interact. 8, 4 (oct 2016), 42–67. https://doi.org/10.4018/IJMHCI.2016100103
 Johanna Meurer, Claudia Müller, Carla Simone, Ina Wagner, and Volker Wulf. 2018. Designing for Sustainability: Key Issues of ICT Projects for Ageing at Home. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) 27, 3 (Dec. 2018), 495–537. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10606-018-9317-1
 United Nations. 2022. Climate Action. Retrieved May 11, 2022 from https://www.un.org/en/climatechange
 UN News. 2022. Don’t lose focus on Syria, UN envoy tells security council. United Nations (2022). Retrieved May 11, 2022 from https://news.un.org/en/story/2022/04/1117012
 Álvaro Oliveira and Margarida Campolargo. 2015. From Smart Cities to Human Smart Cities. In 2015 48th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. 2336–2344. https://doi.org/10.1109/HICSS.2015.281
 Carlotta Preiß. 2019. Why Digital Services for Refugees Often Fail to Achieve Their Objectives. Retrieved May 11, 2022 from https://www.die-happens- when- police- use- ai- to- predict- and- prevent- crime/gdi.de/en/the- current- column/article/why- digital- services- for- refugees- often- fail- to- achieve- their- objectives/
 Hope Reese. 2022. What Happens When Police Use AI to Predict and Prevent Crime? Retrieved May 11, 2022 from https://daily.jstor.org/what-happens- when- police- use- ai- to- predict- and- prevent- crime/
 Laura Robinson, Shelia R. Cotten, Hiroshi Ono, Anabel Quan-Haase, Gustavo Mesch, Wenhong Chen, Jeremy Schulz, Timothy M. Hale, and Michael J.Stern.2015.Digitalinequalitiesandwhytheymatter.Information,Communication&Society18,5(2015),569–582. https://doi.org/10. 1080/1369118X.2015.1012532
 Jesper Simonsen and Toni Robertson. 2013. Routledge International Handbook of Participatory Design—1st Edition. Routledge.com/Routledge- International- Handbook- of- Participatory- Design/Simonsen- Robertson/p/book/9780415720212
 Nancy Smith and Danial Qaurooni. 2020. The Inclusion Zone: Grounded Speculations in Chernobyl. Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 1929–1942. https://doi.org/10.1145/3357236.3395574
 Franziska Tachtler, Reem Talhouk, Toni Michel, Petr Slovak, and Geraldine Fitzpatrick. 2021. Unaccompanied Migrant Youth and Mental Health Technologies: A Social-Ecological Approach to Understanding and Designing. In Proceedings of the 2021 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Yokohama, Japan) (CHI ’21). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, Article 541, 19 pages. //doi.org/10.1145/3411764.3445470
 Margarita Grinko Tanja Ertl and Konstantin Aal. 2021. Human-Wildlife Conflict Mitigation on the Ground. (2021).
 The Guardian. 2022. Russia-Ukraine war: what we know on day 85 of the invasion. Retrieved May 19, 2022 from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2022/may/19/russia- ukraine- war- what- we- know- on- day- 85- of- the- invasion
 David Unbehaun, Daryoush Vaziri, Konstantin Aal, Qinyu Li, Rainer Wieching, and Volker Wulf. 2018. MobiAssist – ICT-Based Training System for People with Dementia and Their Caregivers: Results from a Field Study. In Proceedings of the 2018 ACM Conference on Supporting Groupwork (Sanibel Island, Florida, USA) (GROUP ’18). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 122–126. https://doi.org/10.1145/3148330.3154513
 Human Rights Watch. 2022. World Report 2022: Ethiopia. Retrieved May 11, 2022 from https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2022/country- chapters/ethiopia
 Anne Weibert, Konstantin Aal, and Tanja Ertl. 2021. Und alle können das dann lesen…: von der partizipativen Entwicklung eines Spiels über die Rolle(n) von Technik in unserem Alltag. In Mensch und Computer 2021 – Workshopband, Carolin Wienrich, Philipp Wintersberger, and Benjamin Weyers(Eds.).GesellschaftfürInformatike.V.,Bonn. https://doi.org/10.18420/muc2021-mci-ws06-247
 Cara Wilson, Margot Brereton, and Bernd Ploderer. 2017. MyWord: Supporting the Interest-Based Learning of Words through a Personal Visual Dictionary. In Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Conference Companion Publication on Designing Interactive Systems (Edinburgh, United Kingdom) (DIS 17 Companion). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 132–137.https://doi.org/10.1145/3064857.3079133